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Kindling model

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Kindling is a commonly used model for the development of seizures and epilepsy in which the duration and behavioral involvement of induced seizures increases after seizures are induced repeatedly.[1] The kindling model was first proposed in the late 1960s by Goddard and colleagues.[2] Although kindling is a widely used model, its applicability to human epilepsy is controversial.[1]


The word kindling is a metaphor: the increase in response to small stimuli is similar to the way small burning twigs can produce a large fire. It is used by scientists to study the effects of repeated seizures on the brain. A seizure may increase the likelihood that more seizures will occur; an old saying in epilepsy research is "seizures beget seizures".


Temkin NR, Jarell AD, Anderson GD (2001). "Antiepileptogenic agents: how close are we?". Drugs 61 (8): 1045–55. doi:10.2165/00003495-200161080-00002. PMID 11465868. 


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  1. 1.0 1.1 Bertram E (2007). "The relevance of kindling for human epilepsy". Epilepsia 48 (Supplement 2): 65–74. doi:10.1111/j.1528-1167.2007.01068.x. PMID 17571354. 
  2. Sato M (2008). "Kindling: An experimental model of epilepsy" (PDF). Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 36 (4): 440–441. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1819.1982.tb03123.x. 
  3. wikipedia:Kindling model