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Ich sitze mit einem Philosophen im Garten; er sagt zum
wiederholten Male:‚Ich weiß, dass das ein Baum ist‘,
wobei er auf einen Baum in der Nähe zeigt. Ein Dritter
kommt daher und hört das, und ich sage ihm: ‚Dieser
Mensch ist nicht verrückt: Wir philosophieren nur.‘Ludwig Wittgenstein[1]
This stub is derivative from the same lemma in DutchUnder construction icon.png

I am sitting with a philosopher in the garden; he says to Once again, 'I know that that's a tree' where he points to a nearby tree. A third party comes along and listen to this, and I tell him, 'This Man is not crazy: We only philosophize

translation required

Epistemology (from Greek ἐπιστήμη, epistēmē, meaning "knowledge, understanding", and λόγος, logos, meaning "word") is a term first used by the Scottish philosopher James Frederick Ferrier to describe the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge; it is also referred to as "theory of knowledge". Put concisely, it is the study of knowledge and justified belief. It questions what knowledge is and how it can be acquired, and the extent to which knowledge pertinent to any given subject or entity can be acquired. Much of the debate in this field has focused on the philosophical analysis of the nature of knowledge and how it relates to connected notions such as truth, belief, and justification. The term was probably first introduced in Ferrier's Institutes of Metaphysic: The Theory of Knowing and Being (1854), p. 46

Hertog theory

In the theory of knowledge according to the Hertog (1995) focuses on two main questions:

There is such a thing as an objective reality, independent of our subjective perceptions, and how we can find out that reality? Often scientists simply assume that reality exists and with observation and logical reasoning is to fathom. This is a view of logical positivism.

Opposing currents, such as constructivism, interactionism or subjectivism usually pay much more attention to the epistemological questions. The reality is in their eyes a subjective structure, a "construction" or an image by individuals or groups of people, the "subjects" is formed. They see it as the duty of the examiner to this subjective reality to build a new image

Popper view

Since the 1960s, Karl Popper published special ideas about human knowledge in general and scientific knowledge in particular. In his book Objective Knowledge (1972) Popper presents his "Three Worlds Theory". This simply means that there are actually three different worlds with each of those worlds all kinds of objects or beings, and that the three worlds all three equally real and always separate from each other and therefore should not be confused.

The first world is that of material things, and with this comes of all that science is involved in. This world is usually considered the "real", objective outside world seen and is actually commonplace. Each man makes, as the body, a part of and live in a part of this world; not every man lives in the same places and regions of the world. The second world is that of the experiences and sensations and perceptions and emotions and thoughts; the inner world everything is subjective. This world is actually just as real as the world outside; people can ignore them any more experienced and feel and think as they have hands or live in a house. Again, that every human being lives in a part of this world and that not every person living in the same regions of the world. The third world is that of the concepts and contents of opinions and ideas and abstractions: the world of theoretical beings. Also this really exists; People can not ignore that they believe in ideas and one theory more where to find than others, and that means that they are in their minds (and from their place in the world 2) can be up to those views (anything in the world 3) relationship, just as they also objects to (something in one world) can do.

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  1. Wittgenstein, Ludwig, Über Gewißheit [1951] (1969), § 467.