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Transcendental Meditation research
Practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation technique (TM) have claimed that the technique is more effective than other meditation practices. Independent systematic reviews have not found health benefits for the Transcendental Meditation technique beyond relaxation or health education. It is difficult to determine definitive effects of "meditation practices in healthcare" as the quality of research has design limitations and a lack of methodological rigor. Part of this difficulty is because many studies where conducted by researchers with connection to the TM organization, and where conducted on subjects with a favorable opinion of TM.
There has been ongoing research into the Transcendental Meditation technique since studies first conducted at UCLA and Harvard University in the early 1970s. The research has included studies on physiological changes during meditation, clinical applications, cognitive effects, mental health, addiction, and rehabilitation. Beginning in the 1990s, a focus of research has been the effects of Transcendental Meditation on cardiovascular disease, with over $20 million in funding from the National Institutes of Health.
- 1 Health outcomes
- 2 Mental function
- 3 Criminal rehabilitation, addiction
- 4 Effects on the brain
- 5 Effects on the physiology
- 6 Contraindications
- 7 Research quality
- 8 Recent research
- 9 Research funding and promotion
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
Reduced medical costs
According to research reviews, a retrospective, non-randomized study that examined the health care utilization records for over 2,800 subjects in Quebec found that the 1,400 subjects in the TM group needed less health care after learning TM, whereas the control group’s need increased. These preliminary findings "suggest the potential for decreased usage and costs among patients using TM."
A 2007 systematic review and meta-analysis funded by the NIH Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) found that the effects of TM were no greater than health education regarding blood pressure, body weight, heart rate, stress, anger, self-efficacy, cholesterol, dietary intake, or level of physical activity. This same review performed a meta-analysis that compared TM to progressive muscle relaxation and found that TM produced a greater reduction in blood pressure. The report analyzed studies that compared TM to no treatment and found that it did not produce significantly greater benefits on blood pressure but did produce improvement in cholesterol levels and verbal creativity. In studies that compared TM to a wait-listed control group, TM resulted in greater reduction in blood pressure. The report's assessment of before-and-after studies on patients with essential hypertension found a reduction in blood pressure after practicing TM. The review concludes that firm conclusions regarding health effects cannot be drawn due to the poor quality of the research, though TM researchers said an inappropriate method of quality assessment was used. David Orme-Johnson, former director of research at Maharishi University of Management, in a published critique of the AHRQ report, noted that 98 “potentially relevant” research papers that were suggested for inclusion by the study’s peer-reviewers were disregarded. He also said that the study excluded three categories of studies on meditation that have been included in previous reviews (meditation and alcohol/drug use, adolescents, mortality), and that the study did not control for the confounding of meditation effects and exercise effects.
A 2007 medical textbook on heart disease said that "TM has been shown to not only improve blood pressure but also the insulin resistance components of metabolic syndrome and cardiac autonomic nervous system tone" in subjects with cardiovascular disease, compared with matched controls given only health education. A 2007 review said that data from two studies found reduced mortality from all causes over a mean period of eight years in subjects practicing Transcendental Meditation, compared to controls. In both studies, the controls practiced relaxation techniques, and in one study TM was compared with health education. The review said that its findings are consistent with other research that has found improved blood pressure, insulin resistance, and cardiac autonomic-nervous-system tone in subjects with cardiovascular disease. The review concluded that psychosocial interventions are effective in alleviating distress in cardiovascular patients but that further research is needed to firmly establish that these interventions can affect disease processes, morbidity, and mortality. Independent research reviews also note that a 2000 study published in Stroke found that Transcendental Meditation, compared to health education, reduces atherosclerosis.
A 2006 independent systematic review said, "a small body of research suggests that TM and group-oriented stress management may be effective in reducing psychosocial stress and its effects for African Americans..." The findings include reduced sleep dysfunction and increased health locus of control. The review noted a finding of reduced mortality in African Americans in comparison to a standard relaxation technique. The reviewer said that of the six studies on African-Americans involving TM, one showed no improvement, and only two used blinding; however all were randomized controlled trials. The study also found that in first-world populations, several meta-analyses indicate that TM reduces anxiety, smoking, alcohol and drug misuse, and improves psychological health.
A 2008 meta-analysis of nine studies found a 4.7 mmHg systolic blood pressure and 3.2 mmHg diastolic blood pressure decrease in those who practiced TM compared to control groups that included health education. Three of the studies were assessed as good quality, three as acceptable, and three suboptimal, with subgroup analyses finding no significant difference among the results of the weaker and stronger studies. The review and its primary author were partially funded by Howard Settle, a proponent of TM.
A 2007 meta-analysis by researchers at Maharishi University of Management and the University of Kentucky found that TM significantly lowered blood pressure but that biofeedback, progressive muscle relaxation, and stress management training did not. The results differed from the 2007 government report mentioned above because the authors removed overlapping studies, corrected data collection errors, and included studies outside the scope of that report.
Cardiovascular function in students
A 2009 independent systematic review and a 2010 narrative review reported on several randomized controlled trials on school students that found an improvement in blood pressure and cardiovascular function in the TM group compared to health education. In addition, they reported on a randomized controlled trial on psychosocial and behavioral outcomes that compared TM to health education and found that the TM group had decreased absentee periods, rule infractions, and suspension days, but found no difference in the TM and control groups in regard to tardiness, lifestyle, or stress. The 2010 review concluded that "Studies of TM’s effect in youth on cardiovascular risk, cognition, affect, and behavior are promising, but larger, more definitive comparative effectiveness research is needed." The 2009 review said that because of limitations of the research, larger-scale and more demographically diverse studies need to be done to clarify treatment efficacy." 
A 2009 review reported on research by MUM graduate Vernon Barnes and his colleagues at the Medical College of Georgia on variables related to blood pressure that found that, compared to an eyes-closed relaxation control group, the TM group had increased cardiac output and decreased peripheral resistance as well as decreased systolic blood pressure.
Reviews in 2010 and 2011 reported a 2009 study by MUM and American University researchers on 298 college students that found decreased blood pressure in the TM group that was associated with a reduction in stress and hostility, and an increase in coping.
Cardiovascular function in the elderly
A 2005 systematic review said that research shows that TM improves cardiovascular function in the elderly and slows the aging process.
A 2010 systematic review and meta analysis by the Cochrane collaboration was unable to draw any conclusions regarding the effectiveness of meditation therapy (including TM ) for ADHD due to the lack of suitable evidence.
Anxiety and cognitive function
A 2006 review by the Cochrane collaboration found that there was insufficient evidence to draw conclusions regarding the effectiveness of meditation for anxiety disorders. The review found that TM is equivalent to relaxation (modified progressive muscle relaxation) in reducing anxiety.
Seventy studies on TM were included in a 1989 meta-analysis conducted by a Stanford University physicist and longtime TM practitioner and two past members of the MUM faculty which found that relaxation techniques reduce trait anxiety and that Transcendental Meditation had a larger effect size than other relaxation techniques. The meta-analysis was criticized in a 2003 editorial by Peter Canter because it included studies with no control groups, while a 2009 textbook on research-based alternative medicine characterized it as "thorough and well designed."
According to research reviews, three studies conducted by a Maharishi University of Management doctoral student and reported in 2001 in the scholarly journal Intelligence found that TM reduced anxiety compared to simple rest, contemplative meditation, and no treatment. A randomized controlled trial involving 154 high school students in China found that TM reduced anxiety compared to a control group that simply lay down to rest or sleep, which the authors said indicates that TM has an effect beyond simply resting. This study was replicated by the same researchers in two subsequent randomized controlled trials involving Chinese and Taiwanese students using contemplative meditation and no-treatment control groups. The three studies, characterized by Shauna Shapiro and Roger Walsh in a 2003 research review as being "well-designed studies", also found that TM improves cognitive performance, including increased practical intelligence, creativity, and speed of information processing. A 2011 review by Shapiro, et al., said the studies "provide good support for the use of TM to enhance several forms of information processing in students."
A 2003 review by Peter Canter and Edzard Ernst concluded that evidence does not support a specific or cumulative effect from TM on cognitive function. The review did find positive results in studies that recruited people with favorable opinions of TM, and used passive control procedures.
Walsh, in a 2007 psychotherapy textbook, characterized as "well-designed" a randomized controlled trial which found that TM improved cognitive function and mental health in nursing home residents compared to relaxation, no treatment, and mindfulness training. He writes that other studies have found that TM subjects typically score higher on measures of cognitive development, self-actualization, coping skills, and moral development.
According to the research review by Shapiro and Walsh, a study involving 120 female subjects found that long-term TM practice may increase positive personality growth, with the subjects in the TM group being more confident, relaxed, introverted, satisfied, and conscientious, as well as being less anxious, compared to the control group.
Criminal rehabilitation, addiction
Transcendental Meditation has been used in correctional settings, and research has shown a reduction in negative psychological states and recidivism—that is, returning to criminal behavior after being released from prison. According to a 2010 research review, studies involving hundreds of prisoners at San Quentin and Folsom State Prisons in California and Walpole State Prison in Massachusetts found that recidivism rates were reduced by as much as 47%. Overall, the TM prisoners at Folsom were 43% less likely to return to prison compared to control groups. The study at Folsom also looked at anxiety measures and found a sharp reduction compared to controls. The review said that meditation studies may be subject to researcher bias and self-selection bias, but concluded that policy makers and prison officials may want to implement meditation programs in prisons.
A 2009 review looked at the effect of TM on addiction and noted that while many studies exist, they were conducted by researchers affiliated with Transcendental Meditation and were not randomized controlled trials. Thus the evidence for treating addictive disorders is speculative and inconsistent. It said that while the quasi-religious aspects and cost may deter people, the simplicity of the technique, the physiological changes it induces, and the apparent effectiveness in nonpsychiatric settings merit further study and that "the theoretical basis for meditation’s role in addressing substance use disorders is compelling" based on the physiological mechanisms that have been found.
Three randomized controlled trials on TM have shown reduced substance abuse. According to the Cambridge Textbook of Effective Treatments in Psychiatry, a randomized controlled trial that included the use of Transcendental Meditation in treating alcoholism found that TM and biofeedback increased abstinence in alcoholics. The textbook concluded that there is not yet sufficient evidence for use as treatment but that meditation can help alcoholic patients in a variety of ways. A randomized controlled trial on college students found that both TM and karate training reduced drug usage compared to a no-treatment control group. And a randomized controlled trial on drug users treated for hepatitis found a reduction in drug use in the TM group, and an increase in usage in the no-treatment control group.
Effects on the brain
Alpha brain waves and alpha coherence
Transcendental Meditation has been found to produce specific types of brain waves as measured by electroencephalography (EEG). Studies have found that, compared to a baseline, during meditation there is an increase in alpha amplitude followed by a slowing of the alpha frequency and the spread of this to the frontal cortex Alpha brain waves are classically viewed as reflecting a relaxed brain. When compared to control groups using a different relaxation technique, the increase in alpha is similar and integrated alpha amplitude may even decrease compared to a baseline of eyes-closed rest.
Transcendental Meditation also produces alpha coherence, that is, large-scale integration of frequencies in different parts of the brain. These brain patterns generally suggest a decrease in mental activity and are associated with a relaxed state. This pattern is also sometimes seen while a subject is actively focusing his or her attention on an object or holding some information in mind.
In the Cambridge Handbook of Consciousness, Lutz says that claims in TM promotional material that this coherence represents a higher state of consciousness or a more orderly state of the brain and one that is unique to TM may be overstated or premature "because alpha rhythms are ubiquitous and functionally non-specific...." Lutz says "alpha frequencies frequently produce spontaneously moderate to large coherence (0.3–0.8 over large inter-electrode distance). The alpha coherence values reported in TM studies, as a trait in the baseline or during meditation, belong to this same range. Thus a global increase of alpha power and alpha coherence might not reflect a more 'ordered' or 'integrated' experience, as frequently claimed in TM literature, but rather a relaxed, inactive mental state." On the other hand, in the book The Brain's Alpha Rhythms and the Mind, Shaw says that the EEG changes in alpha coherence are indeed related to meditation, citing Austin. The coherence is distinguished by appearing in the frontal lobes of the brain and is correlated with mental clarity and changes in respiration.
States of consciousness
Research suggests that the practice of TM results in neurophysiological states not ordinarily observed and that are associated with enhanced awareness. A state referred to by Maharishi as transcendental consciousness and experienced during Transcendental Meditation is characterized as being distinct from the ordinary states of waking, sleeping, and dreaming, and as being a "deeply restful yet fully alert state of inner wakefulness with no object of thought or perception." Research has found that specific physiological measures correlate with the experience of transcendental consciousness, including lower respiratory rates, greater heart rate variability, higher amplitude alpha brain waves, and greater alpha coherence.
In addition, a state Maharishi Mahesh Yogi called "cosmic consciousness", may be characterized by the experience of transcendental consciousness outside of meditation and that is present even during sleep. Research on individuals experiencing this state during sleep as a result of practice of TM has found EEG profiles, muscle tone measurements, and REM indicators that suggest there is physiological evidence of this state. Fred Travis of Maharishi University of Management and Joe Tecce of Boston College have also done research on individuals experiencing transcendental consciousness during activity, finding that they also exhibited brain wave signatures that were different from control groups. In addition, the research suggested more efficient functioning in the frontal cortex of the brain.
Epilepsy: kindling or therapy?
EEG studies have shown an increase in theta waves and a dominant pattern of alpha waves in the frontal and occipital lobes. With long-term practice these changes seen in meditation carry over into activity. These changes may enhance brain integration and reduce emotional reactivity. According to a review by Lansky and St Louis, EEG measurements that show neuronal hypersynchrony are similar to those found in epilepsy, leading to concerns about the potential risk of kindling of epilepsy from repetitive Transcendental Meditation. But the authors say clinical studies have found meditation to be a possible antiepileptic therapy. They say that more research is needed "to establish the safety of this technique and its potential efficacy for seizure reduction and improvement of quality of life."
Experience of pain
A brain imaging study on practitioners of Transcendental Meditation conducted by researchers affiliated with Maharishi University and the University of California at Irvine led by David Orme-Johnson showed that TM decreases activity in the thalamus, prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex in response to pain. The tests, which used functional magnetic resonance imagine (fMRI) found approximately a 50% reduction in these pain-processing regions of the brain compared to a control group. The results suggest that, while it does not reduce pain, TM does reduce the emotional distress associated with the experience of pain, resulting in greater tolerance.
Effects on the physiology
TM has been found to produce a set of characteristic responses such as reduced respiration, decreased breath volume, decreased lactate and cortisol (hormones associated with stress), increased basal skin resistance, and slowed heartbeat. Maharishi U researchers Michael Dillbeck and David Orme-Johnson conducted a meta-analysis of 31 studies which found that compared simply resting with one's eyes closed, TM had a greater effect on parameters associated with rest, such as respiration rate, blood plasma lactate levels, and skin resistance. The mechanism for the effects of TM has been explained by proponents as being due to greater order in the physiology, decreased stress, and growth of creative intelligence.
In their 1985 book on religion, Bainbridge and Stark say that subsequent articles published in the 1970s suggested "that the original findings had been false or exaggerated". However, in a 2009 research review in the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, William Bushell referred to the original research as "classic," and said that the preponderance of evidence has shown a reduction in metabolic rate.
While meditation is usually considered safe, Transcendental Meditation may be contraindicated for those with psychiatric illnesses. According to a textbook on alternative and complementary medicine by Lyn Freeman, in this situation it is best if meditation is introduced in the context of a clinical setting, and those patients who are seriously disturbed should only be introduced to meditation under the supervision of a doctor or psychotherapist. Individuals with moderate symptoms were observed to benefit from the practice.
Canter and Ernst's 2004 review found that all randomized clinical trials on blood pressure had important methodological weaknesses and were potentially biased by the affiliation of authors to the TM organization. It concluded that to date, there was "insufficient good-quality evidence to conclude whether or not TM has a cumulative positive effect on blood pressure". In response, TM researchers said that most of the studies in the review were funded by various institutes of the National Institutes of Health and that, as such, the methodologies were peer-reviewed by experts.
A 2007 systematic review of research on meditation, including Transcendental Meditation, said that firm conclusions on health effects cannot be drawn, as the majority of the studies are of poor methodological quality. The review included studies on adults through September 2005, with a particular focus on research pertaining to hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and substance abuse. The review used the Jadad scale to assess the quality of the studies using control groups and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for the others. The quality assessment portion of the 2007 review was published in 2008. The article stated that "Most clinical trials on meditation practices are generally characterized by poor methodological quality with significant threats to validity in every major quality domain assessed." The authors found that there was a statistically significant increase in the quality of all reviewed meditation research, in general, over time between 1956 and 2005. Of the 400 clinical studies, 10% were found to be good quality.
TM researchers said that the 2007 review suffered from limitations related to data collection, analysis, and reporting procedures. Researchers affiliated with Maharishi University of Management and the University of Kentucky said that the use of double blinding, which is required by the Jadad scale, is not appropriate to meditation research and that the review failed to assess more relevant determinants of research quality. Research reviews in science journals say that double blinding may not be possible in meditation research. Canter and Ernst say that blinding of participants isn't feasible, and a Cochrane review says that it's only possible to blind the raters or assessors in meditation trials. One of the earliest double-blinded placebo studies of Transcendental Mediation was conducted in 1975, but the 2007 government-sponsored review found neither this study nor any of the other 800 studies reviewed were properly double blinded.
Research on Transcendental Meditation has been published by the American Medical Association and the American Heart Association, as well as other medical journals such as the American Journal of Hypertension, the American Journal of Cardiology, and the International Journal of Psychophysiology. Research reviews have identified some studies as being "well-designed," "rigorous," or "high quality."
Most of the 700 studies on TM have been produced by researchers directly associated with the TM movement and many of them have not been peer reviewed, according to a 2003 review that looked at the effects of TM on cognitive function and an article in Student BMJ. According to Norman E. Rosenthal, over 340 scientific studies on TM have been published in peer-reviewed journals. A review by Canter and Ernst (2004), said that many studies have been conducted by devotees or researchers at universities tied to the Maharishi, including Maharishi University of Management in Iowa and Maharishi European Research University in Switzerland, which is disputed by Orme-Johnson, who cites the number of institutions worldwide where the research has been conducted. He also says that a meta-analyses of studies on TM and anxiety found that those studies done by researchers with no connection to TM showed a slightly larger effect than those studies by researchers who had a connection. According to TM researchers, studies on Maharishi Vedic Approach to Health have been conducted at over 200 different research institutions and universities in over 30 countries worldwide. American University professor David Haaga, who has collaborated with TM researchers on six studies published 2009-2011 and who is "not committed to a favorable or unfavorable view of its effects," says that such collaboration helps to "ensure that procedures to minimize bias are always given highest priority in the conduct of the research."
In 2011, the editors of Archives of Internal Medicine decided to withhold publication of a paper on a nine-year study of TM and mortality minutes before it was to be published online. The decision, characterized as "unprecedented" by The Scientist, followed communication with lead author, Robert Schneider, and was done to allow the review of new data that was obtained subsequent to the submission of the original manuscript. Schneider, head of the Maharishi University of Management's Institute for Natural Medicine and Prevention, said the authors were happy to have the additional time to review the input of new data and to make any necessary revisions.
Research funding and promotion
In 1991, The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) published an article on Maharishi Ayurveda of which the Transcendental Meditation technique is a part. Later, allegations were made saying that the authors Deepak Chopra, Hari M. Sharma, and Brihaspati Dev Triguna had failed to disclose that they were "involved in organizations that promote and sell the products and services about which they wrote."
In 1999, the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine awarded a grant of nearly $8 million to Maharishi University of Management to establish the first research center specializing in natural preventive medicine for minorities in the U.S. According to the MUM website, the research institute, called the Institute for Natural Medicine and Prevention (INMP), was inaugurated on October 11, 1999, at the University's Department of Physiology and Health in Fairfield, Iowa. By 2004, the U.S. government had awarded more than $20 million to Maharishi University of Management to fund research.
In 2009, the National Institutes of Health awarded an additional grant of $1 million distributed over two years for research on the use of TM in the treatment of coronary heart disease in African-Americans. The award was for research in collaboration with the INMP and Columbia University Medical Center in New York City. The award was from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 via the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute.
According to a 1980 article by sociologist Hank Johnston, the movement's two main universities, Maharishi International University (now Maharishi University of Management) and Maharishi European Research University, have been significant sources of the studies used in promotional materials. Leading individuals and organizations associated with TM cite the existence of many studies, "more than 600 published research studies, conducted at over 200 independent research institutions in 33 countries", to support TM-related concepts. The quantity of studies has been cited to support the political programs of the Natural Law Party, the tax status of a TM property, the use of TM to rehabilitate prisoners, the teaching of TM in schools, the issuance of bonds to finance the movement, as proof that TM is a science rather than a religion, to show the efficacy of the Maharishi Vedic Approach to Health, and as a reason to practice TM itself.
Philip Goldberg, in his 2010 book, American Veda, said some of the experts he spoke with accused TM advocates of using research findings to proselytize. David Orme-Johnson, who directed the TM research program for many years, responded that "enthusiasm for your data does not make your data wrong."
- "The Transcendental Meditation program". TM.org. http://www.maharishi.ca/10-facts.php. Retrieved 27 August 2011. "The Transcendental Meditation technique is unlike any other form of meditation or self-development—in practice and results. The technique is distinguished by its naturalness, effortlessness and profound effectiveness."
- Ospina, MB.; Bond, K.; Karkhaneh, M.; Tjosvold, L.; Vandermeer, B.; Liang, Y.; Bialy, L.; Hooton, N. et al. (June 2007). "Meditation practices for health: state of the research". Evid Rep Technol Assess (Full Rep) (155): 1–263. PMID 17764203. http://www.ahrq.gov/downloads/pub/evidence/pdf/meditation/medit.pdf. "A few studies of overall poor methodological quality were available for each comparison in the meta-analyses, most of which reported nonsignificant results. TM had no advantage over health education to improve measures of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, body weight, heart rate, stress, anger, self-efficacy, cholesterol, dietary intake, and level of physical activity in hypertensive patients".
- Krisanaprakornkit, T.; Ngamjarus, C.; Witoonchart, C.; Piyavhatkul, N. (2010). Krisanaprakornkit, Thawatchai. ed. "Meditation therapies for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)". Cochrane Database Syst Rev 6 (6): CD006507. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006507.pub2. PMID 20556767. "As a result of the limited number of included studies, the small sample sizes and the high risk of bias, we are unable to draw any conclusions regarding the effectiveness of meditation therapy for ADHD.".
- Krisanaprakornkit, T.; Krisanaprakornkit, W.; Piyavhatkul, N.; Laopaiboon, M. (2006). Krisanaprakornkit, Thawatchai. ed. "Meditation therapy for anxiety disorders". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1): CD004998. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004998.pub2. PMID 16437509. "The small number of studies included in this review do not permit any conclusions to be drawn on the effectiveness of meditation therapy for anxiety disorders. Transcendental meditation is comparable with other kinds of relaxation therapies in reducing anxiety". Cite error: Invalid
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- Ospina MB, Bond K, Karkhaneh M, et al. (June 2007). "Meditation practices for health: state of the research". Evid Rep Technol Assess (Full Rep) (155): 1–263. PMID 17764203. "Scientific research on meditation practices does not appear to have a common theoretical perspective and is characterized by poor methodological quality. Firm conclusions on the effects of meditation practices in healthcare cannot be drawn based on the available evidence.".
- Krisanaprakornkit T, Ngamjarus C, Witoonchart C, Piyavhatkul N (2010). Krisanaprakornkit, Thawatchai. ed. "Meditation therapies for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)". Cochrane Database Syst Rev 6 (6): CD006507. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006507.pub2. PMID 20556767. "As a result of the limited number of included studies, the small sample sizes and the high risk of bias".
- Canter PH, Ernst E (November 2004). "Insufficient evidence to conclude whether or not Transcendental Meditation decreases blood pressure: results of a systematic review of randomized clinical trials". Journal of Hypertension 22 (11): 2049–54. PMID 15480084. http://meta.wkhealth.com/pt/pt-core/template-journal/lwwgateway/media/landingpage.htm?issn=0263-6352&volume=22&issue=11&spage=2049. "All the randomized clinical trials of TM for the control of blood pressure published to date have important methodological weaknesses and are potentially biased by the affiliation of authors to the TM organization.".
- Canter PH, Ernst E (November 2003). "The cumulative effects of Transcendental Meditation on cognitive function--a systematic review of randomised controlled trials". Wien. Klin. Wochenschr. 115 (21–22): 758–66. doi:10.1007/BF03040500. PMID 14743579. "All 4 positive trials recruited subjects from among people favourably predisposed towards TM, and used passive control procedures … The association observed between positive outcome, subject selection procedure and control procedure suggests that the large positive effects reported in 4 trials result from an expectation effect. The claim that TM has a specific and cumulative effect on cognitive function is not supported by the evidence from randomized controlled trials.".
- Lyn Freeman, Mosby’s Complementary & Alternative Medicine: A Research-Based Approach, Mosby Elsevier, 2009, p. 163
- QUICK, SUSANNE (October 17, 2004). "Delving into alternative care: Non-traditional treatments draw increased interest, research funding". Journal Sentinel (Milwaukee, WI). Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070929124114/http://www.jsonline.com/story/index.aspx?id=267105.
- Bodeker, Gerald; Kronenberg, Fredi (October 2002). "A Public Health Agenda for Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicine". American Journal of Public Health 92 (10): 1588. "A retrospective study of Quebec health insurance enrollees compared a group of 1418 Transcendental Meditation (TM) practitioners with 1418 nonmeditators. The yearly rate of increase in payments in both groups was not significantly different before the TM group learned meditation; after learning, the annual change in mean payments was a decline of 1% to 2% for the TM group and an increase of up to 12% for nonmeditators.".
- Varvogli, Liza; Darviri, Christina (2011). "Stress Management Techniques: Evidence-Based Procedures that Reduce Stress and Promote Health". Health Science Journal 5 (2): 74–89. "Regular practice of TM leads to reduced medical care utilization and expenditures.".
- Barrows, Kevin; Jacobs, Bradley (January 2002). "Mind-Body Medicine: An Introduction and Review of the Literature". Medical Clinics of North America 86 (1): 13-15. "Preliminary findings suggest the potential for decreased usage and costs among patients using TM.".
- Ospina MB, Bond K, Karkhaneh M, et al. (June 2007). "Meditation practices for health: state of the research". Evid Rep Technol Assess (Full Rep) (155): 1–263. PMID 17764203. "A few studies of overall poor methodological quality were available for each comparison in the meta-analyses, most of which reported nonsignificant results. TM had no advantage over health education to improve measures of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, body weight, heart rate, stress, anger, self-efficacy, cholesterol, dietary intake".
- Ospina MB, Bond K, Karkhaneh M, et al. (June 2007). "Meditation practices for health: state of the research". Evid Rep Technol Assess (Full Rep) (155): 148. PMID 17764203. Quotation: "When compared to PMR (progressive muscle relaxation), TM® produced significantly greater benefits in SBP (systolic blood pressure) and DBP (diastolic blood pressure)"
- Ospina p. 187
- Rainforth, Maxwell; RH, Schneider; Nidich, SI; Gaylord-King, C; Salerno, JW; Anderson, JW (December 2007). "Stress Reduction Programs in Patients with Elevated Blood Pressure: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis". Current Hypertension Reports 9 (6): 520–528. doi:10.1007/s11906-007-0094-3. PMID 18350109.
- Orme-Johnson DW (December 2008). "Commentary on the AHRQ report on research on meditation practices in health". Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 14 (10): 1215–21. doi:10.1089/acm.2008.0464. PMID 19123876. Cite error: Invalid
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- John Vogel, Rebecca Costello, and Mitchell Krucoff, Chapter 47 in Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, Peter Libbie, et al, eds, Saunders Elsevier, 2007, p. 1157. Quotation: “TM has been shown not only to improve blood pressure but also the insulin resistance components of the metabolic syndrome and cardiac autonomic nervous system tone.”
- Fekete, Erin M.; Antoni, Michael H.; Neil, Schneiderman (2007). "Psychosocial and behavioral interventions for chronic medical conditions". Current Opinion in Psychiatry 20 (2): 152–157. doi:10.1097/YCO.0b013e3280147724. PMID 17278914. Quotation:". . . compared to control groups, men and women in a transcendental meditation group revealed lower all-cause mortality over a mean duration of 8 years. Consistent with these findings, after 4 months of transcendental-meditation training, men showed significant changes in blood pressure and insulin sensitivity even after controlling for changes in weight, medication and psychological well being."
- Epel, Elissa; Daubenmier, Jennifer; Tedlie Moskowitz, Judith; Folkman, Susan; Blackburn, Elizabeth (2009). "Can Meditation Slow Rate of Cellular Aging? Cognitive Stress, Mindfulness, and Telomeres". Longevity, Regeneration, and Optimal Health: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1172: 34–53. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04414.x. PMID 19735238.
- Hassed, Craig (November 2007). "Complementary therapies for cerebrovascular disease". Australian Family Physician 36 (11): 921. PMID 18043778. "A study by Castillo-Richmond examined the effect of transcendental meditation and found reversal of carotid atherosclerosis and consequent reduction in risk for cerebrovascular events. This was not explainable by other risk factors controlled for in the study."
- Pratt, Coleman (2010). "Alternative Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease, Part 2". Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice 37 (2): 346. doi:10.1016/j.pop.2010.02.010. PMID 20493340. Quotation: “Researchers . . . found that participants were able to demonstrate regression of coronary arterial plaques (atherosclerosis) after practicing TM twice a day for 6 to 9 months, compared to patients who received simple health education. . . . Researchers at the State University of New York also found that CAD (cardiovascular disease) could be improved with regular TM.”
- Castillo-Richmond, Amparo; Schneider,Robert H.; Alexander, Charles N.; Cook, Robert ; Myers, Hector; Nidich, Sanford; Haney, Chinelo; Rainforth, Maxwell; Salerno, John (2000). "Effects of Stress Reduction on Carotid Atherosclerosis in Hypertensive African Americans". Stroke 31 (3): 568. PMID 10700487. http://stroke.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/strokeaha;31/3/568. Retrieved 2011-05-05.
- Paradies, Yin (Winter 2006). "A Review of Psychosocial Stress and Chronic Disease for 4th World Indigenous Peoples and African Americans". Ethnicity and Disease 16: 295, 302, 305. http://www.ishib.org/ED/journal/16-1/ethn-16-01-295.pdf. Retrieved March 31, 2011. (independent systematic review) Quotation: “In general, TM was more effective that PMR (progressive muscle relaxation) in an eight-year follow-up of 530 African American participants which found a 63% reduction in all-cause mortality and an 82% reduction in heart disease mortality in the intervention group compared to the control groups. . . . Six randomized conrolled studies . . . used TM as the intervention, with PMR also used as a secondary intervention in several trials . . . Compared to the control group, those who undertook the TM intervention had decreased carotid intima-media thickness, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and cardiac output, anxiety, depression, neuroticism, and sleep dysfunction, as well as increased energy, general mental health, and health locus of control.
- Anderson JW, Liu C, Kryscio RJ (March 2008). "Blood pressure response to transcendental meditation: a meta-analysis". Am. J. Hypertens. 21 (3): 310–6. doi:10.1038/ajh.2007.65. PMID 18311126.
- Settle, Howard. "Yogic Flyers, Create Invincible America today" (Press release). Deutsche Nachrichten Agentur. Archived from the original on September 2, 2010. http://www.webcitation.org/5sSdEsRzp. Retrieved September 2, 2010.
- Spruill, Tanya M (2010). "Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Hypertension". Curr Hypertens Rep 12: 14.
- Black DS, Milam J, Sussman S (August 2009). "Sitting-Meditation Interventions Among Youth: A Review of Treatment Efficacy". Pediatrics/American Academy of Pediatrics 124 (3): e536. doi:10.1542/peds.2008-3434. PMID 19706568. (independent systematic review) Quotation: “TM group decreased from before to after test in SBP (systolic blood pressure), HR (heart rate) and CO (cardiac output) during acute stress simulation, and in SBP to a social stressor compared to controls . . . . “ “Study design: RCT: TM (n=17) vs health education control (n=18)” ; “TM group increased EDAD compared to controls, indicating improved endothelial function.” “Study design: RCT: TM (n=57) vs health education control (n=54)”
- Sibinga, EM; Kemper, KJ (2010 Dec). "Complementary, holistic, and integrative medicine: meditation practices for pediatric health". Pediatrics in review / American Academy of Pediatrics 31 (12): e95–e96. doi:10.1542/pir.31-12-e91. PMID 21123509. Quotation: TM group had greater decrease in SBP (systolic blood pressure) HR (heart rate) and CO (cardiac output) reactivity to simulated card driving stressor . . . .” “Design and Training Period: Random assignment to health education control or TM practiced 15 min twice a day . . . .” (p. e96)
- Olivo, Erin (2009). "Protection throughout the Life Span: The Psychoneuroimmunologic Impact of Indo-Tibetan Meditative and Yogic Practices". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (1172): 163–171. “In perhaps the only controlled study investigating the impact of meditation on TPR, subjects in the TM group exhibited significantly decreased TPR and SBP compared with increases in the eyes-closed relaxation control group.”
- Horowitz, Sala (August 2010). "Health Benefits of Meditation: What the Newest Research Shows". Alternative and Complementary Therapies 16 (4): 223–228.
Varvogli, Liza; Darviri, Christina (2011). "Stress Management Techniques: Evidence-Based Procedures that Reduce Stress and Promote Health". Health Science Journal 5 (2): 74–89. Quotation: “Clinical effects of TM impact a broad spectrum of physical and psychological symptoms and syndromes, including reduced anxiety, pain, and depression, enhanced mood and self esteem, decreased stress, and faster recovery from stress.” (Varvogli & Darviri)
- Lindberg, Deborah (2005). "Integrative Review of Research Related to Meditation, Spirituality, and the Elderly". Geriatric Nursing 26 (6): 372=377. "Researchers have demonstrated that Transcendental Meditation (TM) improves cardiovascular health in the elderly. Beneficial responses to practicing TM are decreased blood pressure, reversal of atherosclerosis, and other cardiac-related body symptoms. Early research by Wallace and colleagues evidenced slowing of the aging process in a cross-sectional group of subjects who practiced TM. This finding is supported by additional studies."
- Krisanaprakornkit T, Ngamjarus C, Witoonchart C, Piyavhatkul N (2010). Krisanaprakornkit, Thawatchai. ed. "Meditation therapies for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)". Cochrane Database Syst Rev 6 (6): CD006507. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006507.pub2. PMID 20556767.
- Eppley, Kenneth; Abrams, Allan; Shear, Jonathan (1989). "Differential effects of relaxation techniques on trait anxiety: A meta-analysis". Journal of Clinical Psychology 45 (6): 957–974. doi:10.1002/1097-4679(198911)45:6<957::AID-JCLP2270450622>3.0.CO;2-Q. PMID 2693491.
- For background of researchers, see:
Shurkin, Joel (April 4, 1990). "Transcendental Meditation best against stress, study shows". The Stanford University Campus Report. Archived from the original on February 28, 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5wqUju1N2.
Sanford I. Nidich; Robert A. Ryncarz; Allan I. Abrams; David Orme-Johnson; Robert Keith Wallace (October 1983). "Kohlbergian Cosmic Perspective Responses, EEG Coherence, and the TM and TM-Sidhi Programme". Journal of Moral Education 12 (3). http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a746540676.
"Santa Barbara Institute for Consciousness Studies: Staff & Advisors". sbinstitute.com. 2005. Archived from the original on February 28, 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5wqW18tGH.
- Canter, Peter (2003). "The therapeutic effects of meditation". BMJ 326 (7398): 1049–50. doi:10.1136/bmj.326.7398.1049. PMID 12750183.
- Freeman, Lyn (2009). Mosby's Complementary & Alternative Medicine: A Research-Based Approach. Mosby Elsevier. pp. 158–188. ISBN 978-0-323-05346-4.
- Shapiro, Shauna L.; Walsh, Roger (2003). "An Analysis of Recent Meditation Research and Suggestions for Future Directions". The Humanistic Psychologist 31(2–3): 86–114.
- Shapiro, Shauna (2009). "Meditation and Positive Psychology". in Lopez, Shane; Snyder. Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 601–610. ISBN 978-0-19-518724-3.
- Shapiro, Shauna; Brown, Kirk; Astin, John (March 2011). "Toward the Integration of Meditation into Higher Education: A Review of Research Evidence". Teachers College Record 113 (3): 495–528.
- Canter PH, Ernst E (November 2003). "The cumulative effects of Transcendental Meditation on cognitive function—a systematic review of randomised controlled trials". Wien. Klin. Wochenschr. 115 (21–22): 758–66. doi:10.1007/BF03040500. PMID 14743579.
- Walsh, Roger (2007). "Contemplative Psychotherapies". in Corsini, Raymond; Wedding, Danny; Dumont, Frank. Current Psychotherapies (8th ed.). Brooks/Cole. p. 464. ISBN 0495097144.
- Shapiro, Shauna L.; Walsh, Roger (2003). "An Analysis of Recent Meditation Research and Suggestions for Future Directions". The Humanistic Psychologist 31 (2–3): 86–114. Quotation: "At six-month followup the TM group demonstrated . . . (lists findings re: four mental abilities) . . . as well as significantly reduced anxiety compared to the control group.".
- Himelstein, Samuel (March 2010). "Meditation Research: The State of the Art in Correctional Settings". International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 55 (4): 646–61. doi:10.1177/0306624X10364485. PMID 20332328.
- Dakwar E, Levin FR (2009). "The emerging role of meditation in addressing psychiatric illness, with a focus on substance use disorders". Harv Rev Psychiatry 17 (4): 254–67. doi:10.1080/10673220903149135. PMID 19637074.
- Robinson, Elizabeth A.R.; Strobb, Stephen; Brower, Kirk J. (2008). "Complementary and alternative medicine for alcohol misuse". in Tyrer, Peter; Silk, Kenneth R.. Cambridge Textbook of Effective Treatments in Psychiatry. Cambridge University Press. pp. 345–347.
- O'Donohue, William; Cummings, Nicholas (2008). Evidence-Based Adjunctive Treatments. Academic Press. p. 188. Re: a randomized, controlled trial (RCT) involving TM, Reports of drug use decreased for the TM group and increased for the control group. O’Donohue reports two other RCT’s finding reduced drug or alcohol abuse in TM subjects.
- Zelazo, Philip David; Moscovitch, Morris; Thompson, Evan, eds (2007). The Cambridge handbook of consciousness. Cambridge University Press. pp. 534–535. ISBN 9780521857437.
- Shaw, John (2003). The Brain’s Alpha Rhythms and the Mind: A Review of Classical and Modern Studies of the Alpha Rhythm Components of the Electroencephalogram with Commentaries on Associated Neuroscience and Neuropsychology. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science. p. 212.
- Tassi, Patricia; Muzet, Alain (2001). "Defining the states of consciousness". Neuroscience and Behavioral Reviews (Pergamon) 25 (25): 175–191. PMID 11323082.
- Walsh R, Shapiro SL (April 2006). "The meeting of meditative disciplines and Western psychology: a mutually enriching dialogue". The American Psychologist 61 (3): 227–39. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.61.3.227. PMID 16594839.
- Cahn, B. Rael; Polich, John (2006). "Meditation States and Traits: EEG, ERP, and Neuroimaging Studies". Psychological Bulletin 132 (2): 180–211. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.132.2.180. PMID 16536641.
- Lansky EP, St Louis EK (November 2006). "Transcendental meditation: a double-edged sword in epilepsy?". Epilepsy Behav 9 (3): 394–400. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2006.04.019. PMID 16931164.
- Orme-Johnson, DW; Schneider, RH; Son, YD; Nidich, S; Cho, Z-H (2006). "Neuroimaging of meditation’s effect on brain reactivity to pain". NeuroReport 12 (17): 1359–1363.
- Braboszcz, Claire; Hahusseau, Stephanie; Delorme, Arnaud (2009). "Meditation and Neuroscience: From Basic Research to Clinical Practice". in Carlstedt, Ronald. Handbook of Integrative Clinical Psychology, Psychiatry, and Behavioral Medicine: Perspectives, Practices, and Research. Springer. p. 766. ISBN 9780826110947. Quotation: “This study further suggests that TM practice . . . does reduce emotional distress associated with pain, resulting in enhanced tolerance of acute pain. Results of this last study are of particular significance, as they highlight meditation’s effects on the regulation of the distress associated with painful feelings.”
- Edwards, Robert; Campbell, Claudia; Jamison, Robert; Wiech, Katja (2009). "The Neurobiological Underpinnings of Coping With Pain". Current Directions in Psychological Science 18: 240.
- McGrady, Angele (2010). "Relaxation and Meditation". in L'Abate, Luciano. Low-Cost Approaches to Promote Physical and Mental Health: Theory, Research, and Practice. Springer. pp. 161–176.
- Bainbridge, Sims; Stark, Rodney; Bainbridge, William Sims (1985). The future of religion: secularization, revival, and cult formation. Berkeley, Calif: Univ. of California Press. ISBN 0-520-05731-7. http://books.google.com/?id=lTzPyvT2yusC&pg=PA285&dq=public+relations+Transcendental+meditation#v=onepage&q=public%20relations%20Transcendental%20meditation&f=false.
- William Bushell (2009). "Longevity Potential Life Span and Health Span Enhancement through Practice of the Basic Yoga Meditation Regimen". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1172: p. 21.
- Canter PH, Ernst E (November 2004). "Insufficient evidence to conclude whether or not Transcendental Meditation decreases blood pressure: results of a systematic review of randomized clinical trials". Journal of Hypertension 22 (11): 2049–54. PMID 15480084. http://meta.wkhealth.com/pt/pt-core/template-journal/lwwgateway/media/landingpage.htm?issn=0263-6352&volume=22&issue=11&spage=2049.
- Schneider RH, Walton KG, Salerno JW, Nidich SI (2006). "Cardiovascular disease prevention and health promotion with the transcendental meditation program and Maharishi consciousness-based health care". Ethnicity & Disease 16 (3 Suppl 4): S4–15–26. PMID 16938913.
- Ospina p.v
- Ospina MB, Bond K, Karkhaneh M, et al. (June 2007). "Meditation practices for health: state of the research". Evidence Report/technology Assessment (155): 1–263. PMID 17764203. http://www.ahrq.gov/downloads/pub/evidence/pdf/meditation/medit.pdf.
- Ospina MB, Bond K, Karkhaneh M, et al. (December 2008). "Clinical trials of meditation practices in health care: characteristics and quality". Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 14 (10): 1199–213. doi:10.1089/acm.2008.0307. PMID 19123875.
- Ospina, Maria, et al, "Clinical Trials of Meditation Practices in Health Care: Characteristics and Quality," The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine Volume 14, Number 10, 2008, p. 1210
- Anderson, James, et al, "Blood Pressure Response to Transcendental Meditation: A Meta-analysis," American Journal of Hypertension, March 2008, Volume 21 Number 3, p. 311
- Linden W, Moseley, ?The efficacy of behavioral treatments for hypertension, Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback 2006, 31, pp. 51–63.
- Canter PH, Ernst E (November 2004). "Insufficient evidence to conclude whether or not Transcendental Meditation decreases blood pressure: results of a systematic review of randomized clinical trials". Journal of Hypertension 22 (11): 2049–54. PMID 15480084. http://meta.wkhealth.com/pt/pt-core/template-journal/lwwgateway/media/landingpage.htm?issn=0263-6352&volume=22&issue=11&spage=2050.
- Smith, Jonathan, ''Pseudoscience and Extraordinary Claims of the Paranormal'', Blackwell Publishing (2010). 2009-09-21. ISBN 9781405181235. http://books.google.com/?id=ojd1sdVUydwC&pg=PR9&lpg=PR9&dq=Michigan+state+doctoral+thesis+double+blinded+transcendental#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 2010-12-05.
- Paul-Labrador M, Polk D, Dwyer JH, et al. (June 2006). "Effects of a randomized controlled trial of transcendental meditation on components of the metabolic syndrome in subjects with coronary heart disease". Archives of Internal Medicine 166 (11): 1218–24. doi:10.1001/archinte.166.11.1218. PMID 16772250.
- Castillo-Richmond A, Schneider RH, Alexander CN, et al. (March 2000). "Effects of stress reduction on carotid atherosclerosis in hypertensive African Americans". Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation 31 (3): 568–73. PMID 10700487. http://stroke.ahajournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=10700487.
- Schneider RH, Staggers F, Alexander CN, et al. (November 1995). "A randomised controlled trial of stress reduction for hypertension in older African Americans". Hypertension 26 (5): 820–7. PMID 7591024. http://hyper.ahajournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=7591024.
- Nidich SI, Rainforth MV, Haaga DA, et al. (December 2009). "A randomized controlled trial on effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on blood pressure, psychological distress, and coping in young adults". American Journal of Hypertension 22 (12): 1326–31. doi:10.1038/ajh.2009.184. PMID 19798037.
- Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Staggers F, et al. (January 2005). "A randomized controlled trial of stress reduction in African Americans treated for hypertension for over one year". American Journal of Hypertension 18 (1): 88–98. doi:10.1016/j.amjhyper.2004.08.027. PMID 15691622.
- Barnes VA, Treiber FA, Johnson MH (April 2004). "Impact of transcendental meditation on ambulatory blood pressure in African-American adolescents". American Journal of Hypertension 17 (4): 366–9. doi:10.1016/j.amjhyper.2003.12.008. PMID 15062892.
- Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Staggers F, et al. (May 2005). "Long-term effects of stress reduction on mortality in persons > or = 55 years of age with systemic hypertension". The American Journal of Cardiology 95 (9): 1060–4. doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2004.12.058. PMID 15842971.
- Travis F, Haaga DA, Hagelin J, et al. (February 2009). "Effects of Transcendental Meditation practice on brain functioning and stress reactivity in college students". International Journal of Psychophysiology 71 (2): 170–6. doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2008.09.007. PMID 18854202.
- Ospina p. 56, 108
- Makin, Stephen (November 2003). "Yogis and yagyas: Stephen Makin went to Maharishi School and rebelled by deciding to study medicine. Here, he explains the impact that transcendental meditation has had on his life". Student BMJ (11): 426.
- Rosenthal, Norman (2011). Transcendence: Healing and Transformation through Transcendental Meditation. New York: Tarcher/Penguin. p. 14. ISBN 9781585428731.
- Hecht, Esther (January 23, 1998). "Peace of Mind". Jerusalem Post: p. 12.
- Carlton, Jim (April 15, 1991). "For $1,500 a Head, Maharishi Promises Mellower Inmates --- Transcendental Meditation Goes to Prison as Backers Try to Lock Up Contracts". Wall Street Journal: p. A.1.
- Orme-Johnson, David (June 18, 1991). "Letters to the Editor: Turn Prisons Into Think Tanks". Wall Street Journal: p. 15.
- Studies coauthored by David Haaga include:
Fred Travis, David A. F. Haaga, et al, “A self-referential default brain state: patterns of coherence, power, and eLORETA sources during eyes-closed rest and Transcendental Meditation practice,” COGNITIVE PROCESSING Volume 11, Number 1, 21-30, 2010
Fred Travis, David A.F. Haaga, et al, “Effects of Transcendental Meditation practice on brain functioning and stress reactivity in college students,” International Journal of Psychophysiology Volume 71, Issue 2, February 2009, Pages 170-176
Sanford I. Nidich , Maxwell V. Rainforth , David A.F. Haaga, et al, "A Randomized Controlled Trial on Effects of the Transcendental Meditation Program on Blood Pressure, Psychological Distress, and Coping in Young Adults," American Journal of Hypertension 22, 1326–1331 (1 December 2009)
Travis Fred, Haaga, David A. F., et al, “A self-referential default brain state: patterns of coherence, power, and eLORETA sources during eyes-closed rest and Transcendental Meditation practice,” Cognitive processing 2010, vol. 11, no1, pp. 21-30
Melissa A. Tanner, Fred Travis, Carolyn Gaylord-King, David A. F. Haaga, et al, “The Effects of the transcendental meditation program on mindfulness,” Journal of Clinical Psychology, Special Issue: Mindfulness, Volume 65, Issue 6, pages 574–589, June 2009
David A.F. Haaga, et al, "Effects of the Transcendental Meditation Program on Substance Use among University Students," Cardiology Research and Practice, vol. 2011, no. 537101, pages1-8
- Haaga, David. "A Timely Reminder on Research Design and Interpretation". Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice 15 (1): 66–68.
- Johnson, Jessica P. (July 8, 2011). "Study Pulled Minutes Before Publication". The Scientist. http://the-scientist.com/2011/07/08/study-pulled-minutes-before-publication.
- Sharma HM, Triguna BD, Chopra D (1991). "Maharishi Ayur-Veda: modern insights into ancient medicine". JAMA 265 (20): 2633–4, 2637. doi:10.1001/jama.265.20.2633. PMID 1817464.
- Skolnick AA (October 1991). "Maharishi Ayur-Veda: Guru's marketing scheme promises the world eternal 'perfect health'". JAMA 266 (13): 1741–2, 1744–5, 1749–50. doi:10.1001/jama.266.13.1741. PMID 1817475.
- Pueschel, Matt (July 2000). "Vedic Medicine, Meditation Receive Federal Funds". U.S. Medicine. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. http://web.archive.org/web/20070928030213/http://www.usmedicine.com/article.cfm?articleID=47&issueID=12. Retrieved February 8, 2010.
- "NIH Awards $8 Million Grant to Establish Research Center on Natural Medicine". MUM.edu. http://www.webcitation.org/5rcNs3y5o. Retrieved July 30, 2010.
- "MUM gets $1 million research grant : News : KTVO3". Heartlandconnection.com. 2009-09-25. http://www.heartlandconnection.com/news/story.aspx?id=355188. Retrieved 2009-11-15.
- Johnston, Hank (July 1980). "The Marketed Social Movement: A Case Study of the Rapid Growth of TM". The Pacific Sociological Review (University of California Press) 23 (3): 333–354.
- "'Maharishi Invincible Towers to be set up in 192 countries'". The Hindustan Times (New Delhi). February 10, 2008.
- Deardorff, Julie (December 12, 2001). "Town sees meditation as way to peace". The Charleston Gazette (Charleston, W.V.): p. 2.D.
- Hutchinson, Brian (February 22, 2003). "Wasting away in Maharishi-ville". National Post (Don Mills, Ont.): p. B.1.
- Plagenz, George (September 4, 1996). "Is government ready for a dose of TM?". The Nevada Daily Mail: p. 3. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=Z_swAAAAIBAJ&sjid=2N8FAAAAIBAJ&pg=5223,3578592.
- Rowland, Darrel (July 21, 1996). "PARTY HOPES TM PUTS MEMBERS IN POSITION TO LEAD". Columbus Dispatch (Columbus, Ohio): p. 01.C.
- STATE OF MINNESOTA IN SUPREME COURT C4-96-1425 World Plan Executive Council-United States, et al., v. County of Ramsey, Filed March 20, 1997
- Walpole Study of the Transcendental Meditation Program in Maximum Security Prisoners: Cross-Sectional Differences in Development and Psychopathology. Charles N. Alexander; Kenneth G. Walton; Rachel S. Goodman in Transcendental Meditation in Criminal Rehabilitation and Crime Prevention. Charles Nathaniel Alexander, Kenneth G Walton, David Orme-Johnson Routledge, 2003 ISBN 9780789020376 p. 159
- Victory, Joy (May 18, 2004). "Meditation Controversy". The Journal News.
- "Propectus for the issue and offering of three million RAAM". Stichting Maharishi Global Financing Research. November 14, 2006. http://www.maharishiglobalfinancing.org/PDF/Prospectus%20Nov14%202006.pdf. Retrieved June 2, 2010.
- KAPICA, JACK (November 27, 1993). "VEDA LAND The New Incarnation of the Maharishi REJECTION BY THE VOTERS ONLY SERVES TO MAKE THE NATURAL LAW PARTY'S APPEALS MORE URGENT, ITS PLANS MORE GRANDIOSE, ITS CLAIMS MORE STRIDENT". The Globe and Mail (Toronto, Ont.): p. D.3.
- "Q&A with John Hagelin, 8 Great Reasons to Meditate". Center for Leadership Performance. 2009. http://www.maharishiacademy.org/pdf/brochure_tm.pdf. Retrieved June 2, 2010.
- Goldberg, Philip (2010). American Veda—How Indian Spirituality Changed the West. New York: Crown/Random House. p. 379 n9. ISBN 978-0-385-52134-5. "Most of the experts I spoke to said that the bulk of the TM studies in peer-reviewed journals—now numbering more than 600—rise to professional standards. Some expressed concern about the way TM proponents have interpreted the findings, accusing them of proselytizing. Psychologist David Orme-Johnson, who headed up the TM research program for many years and is now a semiretired spokesman, responds that "enthusiasm for your data does not make your data wrong.""
- Gablinger, Tamar (2010). The Religious Melting Point: On Tolerance, Controversial Religions and the State : The Example of Transcendental Meditation in Germany, Israel and the United States. Language: English. Tectum. pp. 354 pages. ISBN 3828825060
- Persinger, Michael (1980). TM and Cult Mania. Language: English. Christopher Pub House. pp. 198 pages. ISBN 0815803923
- Rothstein, Mikael (1996). Belief Transformations: Some Aspects of the Relation Between Science and Religion in Transcendental Meditation (Tm) and the International Society for Krishna Consciousness. Language: English. Aarhus universitetsforlag. pp. 227 pages. ISBN 8772884215